DUBLIN, IRELAND—After 15 years of study, archaeologists are ready to release a massive report that collects and presents evidence for the astounding number of Viking warrior burials beneath the streets of Dublin, reports the Irish Central. The burials, which date to between A.D. 841 and 902, represent the “largest burial complex of its type in western Europe, Scandinavia excluded,” says Stephen Harrison, who co-authored the 800-page report. It has long been thought that ancient annals that reported that there were vast numbers of Viking warriors in Dublin were greatly exaggerated, but now the great number of burials, along with the impressive grave goods the Vikings have been found with, are evidence not only that the annals may not have exaggerated as much as previously thought, but also that during the ninth century, Dublin was a wealthy and important city.
LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA—After studying ancient Egyptian, Peruvian, Native American, and Mongolian mummies, medical researchers with a group known as the Horus study team have found evidence for narrowing of ancient peoples' arteries due to high build up of fatty deposits, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which can contribute to a number of heart problems. In modern times, atherosclerosis can be caused by smoking, obesity, lack of activity, and other factors that were presumably not present in ancient cultures. Now the Horus study team is proposing that "non-traditional" causes of atherosclerosis could explain the prevalence of the condition among the mummies they have examined. In a World Heart Federation press release, the team points out that chronic infections caused by unhygienic conditions can produce prolonged inflammatory responses that lead to a build up in atherosclerotic plaque. Inhalation of smoke from fires might also cause atherosclerosis. The researchers found that the condition seems to be more common in female mummies, which could be explained by the fact that traditionally women spent more of their time near fires.
SAINT-AUBIN-DES-CHAMPS, FRANCE—Researchers from France's public archaeology agency INRAP are excavating an early medieval necropolis in Normandy. Dating from the fifth to the seventh centuries A.D., the village cemetery held more than 300 burials and was not included in any surviving records from the time, an era when the Frankish Merovingian dynasty ruled the region. According to an INRAP press release, the team is particularly interested in how the site shows how ordinary people experienced the transition from the pagan beliefs of the Roman Empire to the rise of Christianity. Earlier burials in the cemetery feature skeletons buried with lavish grave goods, such as a woman found wearing pins in the shape of bronze trumpets, and a man buried with twenty objects, including an ax, spear, dagger, and a silver coin placed in his mouth. Later burials do not seem to include as many artifacts, reflecting the growing influence of Christianity, which did not encourage the villagers to take objects with them into the afterlife.
CUMBRIA, ENGLAND—While digging at the ancient Roman site of Maryport, archaeologists have uncovered the remains of a large, stone circular structure in front of what dig director Ian Haynes of Newcastle University says is “the most north-westerly classical temple in the Roman world to be discovered so far,” according to Culture24. The rectangular temple dates from the second century A.D. and the circular structure associated with it was likely an impressive monument of some kind, perhaps a large, freestanding column. The ancient remains at Maryport were originally found in the late nineteenth century, and much remains to be discovered, says Haynes. The fort at Maryport was a crucial part of the Roman Empire’s border defenses for at least three centuries, and the classical temple would have been a reminder of home for the soldiers stationed on this remote north-west frontier of the vast empire, explains Nigel Mills, the heritage advisor to the Hadrian’s Wall Trust.
VOLGELHERD CAVE, SOUTHWESTERN GERMANY—Archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have unearthed a small fragment of mammoth ivory that is part of a figurine of a lion, reports PhysOrg. The 40,000-year-old sculpture is one of the most famous works of Ice Age art and was originally discovered during excavations in the cave in 1931. According to Tübingen archaeologist Nicholas Conard, the lion was originally thought to be a relief—making it unique for this period. However, with the small fragment of one side of the lion’s head now reattached, it is clear that the figurine is, in fact, three-dimensional. "The site has yielded a wealth of objects that illuminate the development of early symbolic artifacts dating to the period when modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neanderthals,” says Conard, including evidence of the world’s earliest figurative art and music.
ALTAMIRA, SPAIN—The cave at Altamira, where bison and horses were painted and carved into the limestone some 22,000 years ago, was closed to visitors in 2002 due to the grown of algae-like mold on the cave walls. But as part of a new study, five randomly chosen visitors a week have been allowed to enter the cave wearing special protective suits since late last February. The goal of the study is to determine “if there is a form of public visiting that is compatible with the adequate conservation of Altamira,” José Antonio Lasheras, director of the Altamira museum, told The New York Times. The results of the investigation are due in September. Some scientists are concerned that the experiment will endanger the rock art in order to promote tourism. “All the data indicate the fragility of the cave and its propensity to suffer a fungal infection if it is opened to visits,” said Cesáreo Sáiz Jiménez, a research professor at the Spanish National Research Council.
CROWNSVILLE, MARYLAND—While looking for the French general Comte de Rochambeau’s 1781 campsite at Belvoir, the plantation home of Francis Scott Key’s grandmother, archaeologists found the brick floor of a large building that may have served as a dormitory-style slave quarters. “The discovery of this is an amazing contribution to understanding African-American life in Anne Arundel County. Up to this point, we did not know they were building slave barracks like this,” county cultural resources planner Jane Cox told The Capital Gazette. The building’s footprint is more than twice the size of most slave quarters. “The foundation of this thing is so massive, we strongly suspect it had two stories,” said county archaeologist All Luckenbach.
ATHENS, GREECE—The AFP reports that a ceramic wine cup engraved with the names of six men was unearthed in a pauper’s grave in the suburb of Kifissia. Among the names are “Pericles,” and “Ariphron.” “The name Ariphron is extremely rare. Having it listed above that of Pericles makes us 99 percent sure that these two are brothers,” said Angelos Matthaiou, secretary of the Greek Epigraphic Society. Could the cup have been used by the Athenian statesman Pericles, who had an older brother named Ariphron? Matthaiou suggests that the cup was used in a wine symposium, and the six men put their names on the cup as a memento given to a man named Drapetis, who may have been a the owner of the tavern or his servant. “They were definitely woozy, as whoever wrote Pericles’ name made a mistake and had to correct it,” he added.
BRISTOL, ENGLAND—Scientists from the University of Bristol and the University of Helsinki analyzed residues in ancient cooking pots from “Corded Ware” settlements in Finland and discovered evidence of milk fats dating to 2500 B.C. “This is remarkable evidence which proves that four and a half thousand years ago, Stone Age people must have been foddering and sheltering domesticated animals over harsh winters, in conditions that even nowadays we would find challenging,” Lucy Cramp of Bristol University, told Science Daily. These dairy-consuming farmers, who were probably genetically different from the local hunters and gatherers, have been linked to modern-day Finns.
BLOOMINGTON, ILLINOIS—Excavations at the McLean County Museum of History have uncovered part of the footprint of the 1836 courthouse where Abraham Lincoln often worked as an attorney. “They found the corner and now can plot out the exact location. These are the physical remains of an incredibly historical episode in McLean County,” museum director Greg Koos told The Pantagraph. The two-story brick structure replaced a wood-frame building, until it was eventually torn down and replaced in 1868. Archaeologists Christopher Stratton and Floyd Mansberger of Fever River Research also found a line of fence posts, and they recovered pieces of glass, a pipe stem, ceramic pieces, spikes, and nails. The researchers will dig in the four corners of the property, including the site of two early jails.
PRICE, UTAH—Repairs to the protected Nine Mile Canyon Pregnant Buffalo rock art panel reportedly will be paid for by the family of the juveniles who defaced it. The two juveniles carved their initials and the date into the rock face over Memorial Day weekend, which was reported to the authorities by concerned citizens. The Bureau of Land Management estimates that the restoration will cost $1,500. “I hope people try to think about the consequences and the effect their actions have on history,” one of the youths told The Standard Examiner after a BLM law enforcement officer met with the family.
MANJORO, KWAJALEIN ATOLL—The Yomiuri Shimbun reports that rising seas and coastal erosion have exposed human bones on the Marshall Islands. The bones are thought to be the remains of Japanese soldiers killed during fierce fighting between American forces and the Imperial Japanese Army in early 1944. Michael Terlep, chief archaeologist at the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office, examined the bones with a representative of the U.S. government. They concluded that the bones have Asian characteristics, and bullets and Japanese military artifacts were found with the bones. If the remains are confirmed to be Japanese, they will be repatriated. An estimated 20,000 Japanese soldiers are thought to have been killed on the Marshall Islands or in the surrounding ocean during World War II.
ARHUS, DENMARK—In 2012, the remains of an entire army were discovered in the bogs near the Alken Enge wetlands in East Jutland. Archaeologists from Aarhus University, Skanderborg Museum, and Moesgaard Museum have examined the 2,000-year-old bones, and found that the soldiers’ remains were collected some six months after death, desecrated, and cast into Mossø Lake in what was likely a religious ritual. “We have found a wooden stick bearing the pelvic bones of four different men. In addition, we have unearthed bundles of bones, bones bearing marks of cutting and scraping, and crushed skulls,” project manager Mads Kähler Holst of Aarhus University told Phys.org. The human bones were mixed with the remains of slaughtered animals and clay pots that probably contained food.
COLLINSVILLE, ILLINOIS—Students from the University of Bologna unearthed a collection of artifacts that could represent the cosmological view of the Mississippians living at Cahokia Mounds. Whelk shells, imported from the Gulf Coast, a dog bone, and bird bones were found in a ceremonial pit, along with two toggles that may have tied the items together in a bundle. The shells are thought to represent the lower world of the cosmos, the dog bone the middle world where humans lived, and the bird bones the upper world. “Most of what we find are fragments of pottery shards and little bits of arrow points and things like that. So 95 percent of what we find are that kind of stuff. But when we find something that represents what we think, it was actually a bundle, a sack, with things laid in there in a very specific order related to their cosmological view, that’s a pretty significant find,” Cahokia Mounds Museum Society Executive Director Lori Belknap told The News Democrat.
NEW YORK, NEW YORK—Researchers from the Tree Ring Laboratory at Columbia University analyzed samples taken from the partial hull of a wooden ship discovered 22 feet below street level at the site of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan in 2010. Hickory in the keel helped them to narrow the search for the ship’s origins to the eastern United States. White oak in the ship is similar to samples from a study of Philadelphia’s Independence Hall. “We could see that at that time in Philadelphia, there were still a lot of old-growth forests, and [they were] being logged for shipbuilding and building Independence Hall. Philadelphia was one of the most—if not the most—important shipbuilding cities in the U.S. at the time. And they had plenty of wood so it made lots of sense that the wood could come from there,” Dario Martin-Benito of Columbia’s Tree Ring Lab told Live Science. Most of the ship’s timbers were sent to the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory. For more on the discovery of the ship, read ARCHAEOLOGY's feature "The Hidden History of New York Harbor."
POTOSI, BOLIVIA—A mass grave containing the remains of hundreds of people was uncovered by construction workers in the El Minero district of Potosi in the Andes Mountains. Sergio Fidel of Tomas Frias University thinks that the site may have been an indigenous burial ground of slaves and indentured servants during the Spanish colonial era, when the ethnic Aymara were put to work in the silver mines, or victims of the collapse of a reservoir in Potosi during the 1600s. “We are talking about a common grave found at about 1.8 meters, and human remains are scattered over an area of four by four meters,” Fidel told AFP.
CALGARY, CANADA—According to a report by Newstalk 770, a hand-stamped brick, metal pickax heads, rail spikes, and window glass that could date to the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway in the 1880s were uncovered by utility workers in downtown Calgary. The artifacts were found along the old railway line in what is now a power substation. Archaeologists have been called in to try to determine the exact age of the tools.
EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND—Forensic artists from the University of Dundee have rebuilt the faces of several of the nearly 400 men, women, and children whose remains were discovered in a medieval cemetery five years ago. “We have had a forensic pathology report done on all of the remains and that is allowing us to gain information about the population,” city archaeologist John Lawson told The Edinburgh Evening News. Most of those buried in South Leith Parish Church’s graveyard probably died of infectious diseases, and a small number of the women died in childbirth. Chemical analysis of a sample of the bones suggests that 80 percent of the dead had grown up in the Leith or Edinburgh area, eating a diet made up of predominately meat and dairy products with some marine fish. “It would have been a difficult life and it would have been hard for these folk because it was only a small hamlet,” added Jim Tweedie of Leith History Society.
ESSEX, ENGLAND—Local divers and archaeologists from Cotswold Archaeology continue to explore the wreckage of The London, a warship that was carrying 300 barrels of gunpowder when it blew up in 1665. Until now, the ship has been preserved in the silt and mud of the Thames Estuary, the ship’s timbers are now being destroyed by changing tidal patterns and dredging for the London Gateway port development. One woman and 24 men of the 350-member crew survived the explosion, but many of the human remains recovered so far have been women. “It’s a good question why there were so many women, and one on which I wouldn’t care to speculate,” archaeologist Dan Pascoe told The Guardian. The researchers have also recovered a clay pipe, tallow candles, a pistol, musket shot, spoons, and part of a scale. The team expects that many of The London’s guns are still buried in the silt.
CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA—Tens of thousands of Earlier Stone Age artifacts have been discovered at an archaeological site at Kathu in the Northern Cape province of South Africa by archaeologists from the University of Cape Town, the University of Toronto, and the McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa. The site, which is estimated to be between 700,000 and one million years old, is located in a major mining center and development zone. “We need to imagine a landscape around Kathu that supported large populations of human ancestors, as well as large animals like hippos. All indications suggest that Kathu was much wetter, maybe more like the Okavango than the Kalahari. There is no question that the Kathu Complex presents unique opportunities to investigate the evolution of human ancestors in Southern Africa,” Michael Chazan of the University of Toronto told Science Daily.