YORK, WESTERN AUSTRALIA—Sean Winter of the University of Western Australia has investigated the Toodyay and York convict hiring depots in Western Australia, and found differences between them and the convict system in New South Wales. “It was set up 60 years after New South Wales and under a completely different penal theory,” he told Phys.org. Winter and his team used old maps, ground-penetrating radar, and a magnetometer to look for the remains of buildings erected by the convicts at the depots and to target areas for excavation. “There is no evidence of walls or any kind of restrictive structures around the outside of the depots. They weren’t locked up at night, they could come and go as they pleased, and they were even able to do things like access guns so they could go hunting. We found that there was a lot of alcohol consumption,” he added.
GHAT, LIBYA—Rock art in Libya’s Tadrart Acacus, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been vandalized by spray-painted graffiti and carved initials at an accelerated rate since the country’s civil war began in 2011. Hunters have taken over the landscape, killing off gazelles and wolves, while archaeologists and tourists stay away for safety concerns. The oldest paintings date back 14,000 years, and depict animals and plants that no longer live in the region. “The destruction is not just affecting the paintings but also the natural reserve. Hunters are to blame,” Ahmed Sarhan, a tourist ministry official in Ghat, told Reuters.
DEVON, ENGLAND—In the medieval period, fresh drinking water was carried into the city of Exeter through a network of tunnels, according to Mark Stoyle of the University of Southampton. He examined historic documents that record the plumbers’ activities and list the supplies that they needed, including lead, candles, and lanterns. “People from all social backgrounds relied on the system to provide their drinking water, so it was vital to keep it running smoothly. The city retained a plumber to carry out regular maintenance and he, in turn, hired in a team of workers to help with specific jobs,” Stoyle told Science Daily. The brick-lined tunnels were constructed to protect the lead pipes that carried the water, and to provide the plumbers with easy access to them. “Imagine if today there was no more digging up the roads to mend a water main!” he said.
AARHUS, DENMARK—A new study concludes that the extinctions of large mammals such as woolly mammoths, giant sloths, mastodons, and cave lions around the world over the past 130,000 years correlates more closely with the arrival of humans than with changes in climate. “The evidence really strongly suggests that people were the defining factor,” Chris Sandom, who was a researcher at Aarhus University at the time of the study, told Live Science. In sub-Saharan Africa, where large animals evolved alongside humans as they learned to make and use tools, there was the least extinction. When humans moved to Asia and Europe, they encountered animals unaccustomed to human hunters, and extinction rates rose. Climate may have interacted with human arrival in Eurasia, with temperatures determining where people migrated. Sandom found that extinctions were most extreme in Australia and the Americas, where humans arrived comparatively late. The new predators may have disrupted the animals’ ability to adapt to new habitats. “You’ve got this very advanced hunter arriving in the system,” he explained.
COUNTY MEATH, IRELAND—A baby’s intact skeleton has been discovered at Tlachtga, on the Hill of Ward in Athboy. The child is thought to have been between seven and ten months old at the time of death. “We may never know what caused the death of the child. The skeleton probably dates back 3,000 years and was found on the bedrock at the base of a 1.5 meter ditch,” Stephen Davis of University College Dublin told The Meath Chronicle. The site is thought to have been a key ritual site where Samhain was first celebrated with the lighting of the winter fires. Davis doesn’t think the baby’s death was sacrificial, however.
ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND—A site that was in use from the early Bronze Age (2300 B.C.) through the 1800s is being excavated ahead of the construction of a new park and ride facility. Archaeologists have found 4,000-year-old pottery, small pits and post-holes from roundhouses, and partial quern stones, used for grinding grains. Residues from working metal have also been uncovered. “The site appears to have been significant over a 2,000 year period with Iron Age occupation and evidence of smithing and domestic life,” archaeologist Steve Thomson told Culture 24.
ORANGE, VIRGINIA—Archaeological work at Montpelier, James Madison’s home, has uncovered an unusually shaped foundation near the main house. The eighteenth-century brick building is thought to have been taken down in 1808, when Madison added two wings to the mansion. “It’s totally different than anything else. It’s not square, and we have no idea what it is. It’s going to be cool, that’s all we know,” Matt Reeves, director of Montpelier’s archaeology department, told C-Ville. The house had eight owners after the former president and his wife Dolley died, and it was only in 2008 that the house was restored to what it would have looked like when the couple had lived there. Now the focus is on finding and returning their possessions to the house, and rebuilding the quarters where some 300 enslaved people lived.
SAMUT SAKHON, THAILAND—An Arab dhow dating to the eighth or ninth centuries has been discovered in the mud beneath a shrimp farm that may have once been a canal or a shoreline in a mangrove forest. The parts of the wooden ship had been stitched together with rope. It had been carrying earthenware and stoneware from China and Europe, coconuts, toddy palms, betel nuts, rice, a horn, fish, animals, and seeds when it sank. “Some of the earthenware is extraordinary and had never been found anywhere in Thailand. They are oval-shaped containers with a pointed bottom. Comparison studies found they are similar to amphoras usually found in Europe, the Middle East, and India,” Preeyanuch Chumphrom, an archaeologist for the Regional Office of the Fine Arts Department in Ratchaburi, told The Bangkok Post. The team is researching the best way to preserve the vessel.
WILTSHIRE, ENGLAND—Volunteers have built five structures at Stonehenge, based upon the 4,500-year-old archaeological remains of Neolithic homes unearthed at nearby Durrington Walls, with 20 tons of chalk, 5,000 rods of hazel and three tons of wheat straw. The one-room dwellings contain replica axes, pottery, and other items to reflect what is known about living conditions at about the same time as the placement of the large sarsen stones at the site. “We know for example, that each house contained a hearth and that puddled chalk was used to make the floor. And far from being dark and primitive, the homes were incredibly bright and airy spaces with white chalk walls and floors designed to reflect sunlight and capture heat from the fire,” a spokesperson from English Heritage told BBC News.
DUNDONALD, NORTHERN IRELAND—A rare archaeological site at Ballymaglaff that had yielded more than 2,000 pieces of struck flint from the Mesolithic period has been badly damaged by the construction of a road into a new housing development. The site was discovered in 1984 by local historian Peter Carr, and had been listed on the Department of the Environment’s Sites and Monuments record. “Over 20 of the period’s rare and highly distinctive microliths have been discovered here. Very few sites can claim over ten,” Carr told The Belfast Telegraph. Much of the archaeological layer was left in spoil heaps near the new road, but they have since been redistributed. Excavation of the site could have produced evidence of dwellings and fireplaces. “If the department gets its act together, material could still be salvaged from what remains of the heaps,” Carr said.
BERLIN, GERMANY—Science News reports that the remains of two men wearing trousers have been recovered from the Yanghai graveyard in China’s Tarim Basin by Ulrike Beck and Mayke Wagner of the German Archaeological Institute. They say that the trousers are the oldest known examples of their kind. Dated to between 3,300 and 3,000 years ago, the pants have straight-fitting legs and a wide crotch. They were sewn together from three pieces of wool cloth that had been woven on a loom to the correct size, and fashioned with side slits, strings at the waist for fastening, and designs on the legs. One of the men had been buried with a decorated leather bridle and a wooden bit, a battle ax, and a leather bracer for arm protection. The other man was accompanied by a whip, a decorated horse tail, a bow sheath, and a bow. “This new paper [in Quaternary International] definitely supports the idea that trousers were invented for horse riding by mobile pastoralists, and that trousers were brought to the Tarim Basin by horse-riding peoples,” commented Victor Mair of the University of Pennsylvania.
WESTERN BOYNTON BEACH, FLORIDA—Graduate student Rebecca Stitt of Florida Atlantic University is investigating the pottery of the Belle Glade culture from a trash mound in Boynton Beach. “Work needed to be done at the Boynton mounds because nothing has been done there for a while. I wanted to look at ceramics specifically, to see which ceramics came from which times,” she told CBS 12 News. The people living in the Belle Glade community at Boynton Beach built their homes above the saw grass and swamps of Lake Okeechobee so that they could see others approaching. They also built canals for transportation and trade. “They were an interior culture and had no direct contact with Europeans in the early years,” added Debi Murray of the Palm Beach Historical Society.
SEDONA, ARIZONA—The ruins of a log cabin estimated to be at least 100 years old were discovered near Barney Spring, on land cleared by the 21,000-acre Slide fire in Arizona. “The finding itself was very subtle. It’s a collapsed, degraded cabin related to the earliest Euro-American settlement of this rugged, remote piece of Arizona,” Jeremy Haines, a U.S. Forest Service archaeologist, told The Los Angeles Times. The cabin, which was probably destroyed by a wildfire many years ago, may have been built by Jim Barney, who kept cattle near Oak Creek, or it may have belonged to bear hunter Bear Howard, who is known to have had a cabin in front of Oak Creek Canyon. He may have also had this one at the back end. “Imagine you’re on horseback in a remote area 100-plus years ago; with very limited tools, you’re constructing your own living space,” Haines explained.
CAIRO, EGYPT—Sarah Parcak of the University of Alabama at Birmingham uses satellite imagery to identify what she calls “hot spots” of organized looting activity in Egypt. “It was really hard before this technology to get a full sense of site damage from looting all over the world. It was one thing to see the pits, but it was really hard to systematically count them. The satellite imagery allows us to track extent of damage at site—not only get a sense of numbers, but also track change to a site over time,” she told The Guardian. That information could help Egyptian officials stop the sale of illegal antiquities before they leave the country. And, in March, Egypt’s minister of state for antiquities, Mohamed Ibrahim Ali, met with officials from the Obama administration to ask for emergency restrictions on the import of antiquities. “The agreement would make us capable of controlling the situation. Many objects are being sold here in the United States,” he said.
LEICESTER, ENGLAND—A 3-D model of the spine identified as belonging to Richard III shows strong evidence that the king suffered from scoliosis. His spine curved to the right and twisted to form a somewhat spiral shape, according to a report published in The Lancet by a team from the University of Cambridge, Loughborough University, and the University Hospitals of Leicester. This new analysis suggests that Richard III’s right shoulder would have been higher than his left, and his torso would have been relatively short compared to his arms and legs. His head and neck, however, would have been straight, and he probably did not have a limp. “His leg bones were normal and symmetric,” osteoarchaeologist Jo Appleby of the University of Leicester told Red Orbit. “The arthritis in the spine meant it could only be reconstructed in a specific way, meaning that we can get a very accurate idea of the shape of the curve,” she added. The scientists think that well-designed clothes and armor would have been able to mask the curvature.
LONDON, ENGLAND—A flint tool, campfires, animal bones, and a possible fish trap made of two rows of wooden stakes have been found on the construction site of the new U.S. Embassy in London. Kasia Olchowska of the Museum of London Archaeology thinks that the land would have been too wet to have been a permanent settlement, but it would have made a fine hunting or fishing camp. The flint, which was discovered among water-smoothed gravel, was probably swept out of its original context by a river channel. Experts think that it was probably crafted between 100,000 and 12,000 years ago. Other stone tools include scrapers and a plunging blade. Carbon dating suggests that the rest of the site is up to 11,750 years old. “We think that [the fires] are potentially marking a spot that people were coming back to seasonally,” Olchowska told Live Science.
UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA—Were early human hunters responsible for the tens of thousands of bones collected at some 30 spots known as mammoth cemeteries? Evidence of huts made of mammoth bones have been found at some of the locations, and some of the bones bear cut and burn marks. Pat Shipman of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, thinks that people may have ambushed the large animals at these sites, perhaps with the help of dogs. The dogs could have corralled the mammoths and they may have also protected the meat after the kill. “All of that mammoth meat would have brought predators from miles around. In return, the humans may have provided these canines with food and protection. And slowly, a closer relationship may have begun to form,” she told Science Now. Skulls with both wolf- and doglike features have been found among the mammoth bones at several of these cemetery sites, and some of the bones have healed fractures, a possible sign of human care, but more evidence is needed to support Shipman’s hypothesis.
EAST LOTHIAN, SCOTLAND—Human bones unearthed in Auldhame in 2005 may be the remains of Olaf Guthfrithsson, the King of Dublin and Northumbria from 934 to 941, or a member of his entourage, according to an announcement made by Fiona Hyslop, Scotland’s Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs. Olaf Guthfrithsson, a Viking king of Ireland, sacked the churches at Auldhame and nearby Tyninghame, which were both part of a complex of churches dedicated to eighth-century St. Balthere, shortly before his death. “Whilst there is no way to prove the identity of the young man buried at Auldhame, the date of the burial and the equipment make it very likely that this death was connected with Olaf’s attack on the locale,” Alex Woolf of the University of St. Andrews and a historical consultant on the project told BBC. “Since we have a single furnished burial in what was probably perceived as St. Balthere’s original foundation, there is a strong likelihood that the king’s followers hoped that by burying him in the saint’s cemetery he might have benefited from some sort of post-mortem penance,” he explained.
SHANGHAI, CHINA—A new study of metabolites—small molecules such as sugars, vitamins, amino acids, and neurotransmitters that represent key elements of our physiological functions—suggests that human muscle may be as unique as the human brain. Scientists from the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology and teams from the Max Planck Institutes found that the metabolome of the human brain has evolved four times faster than that of the chimpanzee, and human muscle accumulated metabolic changes ten times faster than chimpanzees. “For a long time we were confused by metabolic changes in human muscle, until we realized that what other primates have in common, in contrast to humans, is their enormous muscle strength,” Josep Call of the Wolfgang Kohler Primate Research Center in Leipzig told Science Daily. The team thinks that humans may have evolved a special energy management system that powers the brain at the expense of muscle strength.
COUNTY MEATH, IRELAND—Vandals poured red and green paint over the Lia Fail, a 5,000-year-old standing stone on top of the Hill of Tara. Tradition holds that the stone would “roar” when touched by the rightful king of Tara. “This act of mindless vandalism, on one of our premier archaeological sites, is truly shameful,” Jimmy Deenihan, Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht, told The Irish Mirror. Police are investigating the crime. The stone was damaged with an ax in 2012.