PAPHOS REGION, CYPRUS—According to a report in the Cyprus Mail, archaeologists working at the site of Kretou Marottou-Ais Yiorkis have uncovered an early Neolithic grave that may be the one of the earliest human burials on the island. The adult male was found along with a large assemblage of chipped stones and animal bones including deer and pig. The team also discovered cattle bones, the earliest such examples to be recorded on Cyprus. The researchers say that the grave is “especially significant” not only for its human skeletal contents, which are extremely rare for this period, but also for its location in the foothills of the Troodos Mountains. Most Neolithic sites in Cyprus are found near the coast. “Kretou Marottou-Ais Yiorkis continues to be an important site for better understanding the early colonization of Cyprus,” reads a statement from the Cypriot Department of Antiquities.
JERUSALEM, ISRAEL—According to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, geologists investigating the Western Wall have revealed that they think they know why some parts of the structure are eroding faster than others, a major concern for the wall’s long-term stability. By using lasers to scan the wall to create a 3-D model, they discovered that the wall is made of different kinds of limestone with different erosion patterns. They then collected stones from quarries thought to have supplied at least some of the ancient building material, and subjected it to tests intended to simulate the effect of erosion over the past 2,000 years since the wall was built. The team learned that while limestone with large crystals were more resistant to erosion, that made up of smaller crystals eroded much more quickly. The scientists’ results could have important lessons for the conservation of Western Wall, as well as ancient structures around the globe, says lead researcher Simon Emanuel.
POLAND, BALTIC SEA—According to a report in Livescience, a 200-year-old stoneware bottle excavated from a shipwreck off the Polish coast contains an alcohol distillate, perhaps vodka or a type of gin called jenever. And, say the researchers, the spirit is still drinkable even after two centuries at the bottom of the sea. Originally the archaeologists thought the bottle contained a popular type of mineral water called “Selters” whose name is engraved on the outside, and which is still sold in the area. But once they popped the cork and analyzed the vessel’s contents, they discovered its true contents. The shipwreck also ceramic bowls, and dinnerware, though project head Tomasz Bednarz says the bottle of booze “is our most valuable find.”
KOURION, CYPRUS—More evidence of the massive earthquake that devastated this part of Cyprus in the fourth century A.D. has been found, says Cyprus Mail. During excavations this summer, a team led by Thomas W. Davis of the Tandy Institute for Archaeology at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas, uncovered the remains of two adults, a young child, and an infant, possibly an entire family lying close together trying to shelter under a building that may have been their home. The structure likely collapsed during the quake, burying its residents. In addition to the family’s remains, in the house the team also uncovered luxury goods including a yellow and green glass plate imported from Egypt. The city of Kourion was well known and written about frequently in antiquity, including by such authors as Ptolemy and Pliny, and has a long and rich history from at least the fourth century B.C. through the Christian eras.
QUINCEAUX, FRANCE—A Middle Paleolithic site in southwestern France has produced hundreds of bones belonging mostly to large animals, as well as flints, evidence of prehistoric butchering by the area’s Neanderthal inhabitants some 35,000 to 55,000 years ago, reports horsetalk. According to the researchers, the bones of horses were particularly numerous—although there were also wooly rhinoceros, bison, reindeer, mammoth, bear, and even a few wolf bones—and are a result of Neanderthal hunting and scavenging. In many cases, the animals’ long bones are missing, perhaps evidence that the meatier parts were butchered and then taken away, and the carcasses left behind. The excavation, which was originally scheduled to end soon so road construction can begin at the site, but has been determined to be of such significance that the archaeologists have been given extra time to investigate.
DARWIN, AUSTRALIA—ABC News reports that a rare nineteenth-century stairway has been exposed in Darwin, a city with only five intact structures surviving from the Victorian era. Archaeologist Karen Martin-Stone was called in to investigate the site after workers building a fence discovered the edge of the steps. "The original staircase was quite decorative, and was capped with beautiful concrete," says Martin-Stone. "There is a moulded cavity in the concrete wall at the middle of the stairs, which may have been for the base of a lamp post." She also notes that metal railway sleepers and rail track were incoporated into the stairway's construction. Known as "Lover's Walk," the pathway was closed in 1918, apparently much to the dismay of some of the town's then tiny population, which stood at around 3,600 in 1911. "We very rarely see nineteenth century remains," says heritage official Michael Wells. His office is considering doing more digging around the site to locate a lime kiln that is known to have been somewhere near the staircase.
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA—Egyptologist Jana Jones and her colleagues have discovered that mummification was practiced in Egypt more than 6,000 years ago, or some 1,500 years earlier than previously thought. Experts had assumed that before about 2200 B.C. all mummification in Egypt was due to natural dessication. But when Jones and her colleagues studied funerary wrappings from late Neolithic cemeteries in Upper Egypt that had been scientifically excavated, they found traces of traditional Egyptian embalming agents like pine resin, plant gum, and natural petroleum. They also occured in similar proportions to ingredients that were used 3,000 years later during the heyday of Pharaonic mummification. “The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localised soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the mummification practice of the Pharaonic period,” said University of York researcher Stephen Buckley, the study's co-leader, in a Macquarie University press release.
ASUKA, JAPAN—The Asahi Shimbun reports that archaeologists excavating a sixth-century A.D. tomb mound in Japan's Nara Prefecture believe it was shaped like a step pyramid. The tomb, which stands more than fifteen feet at its highest, once probably held the remains of the powerful clan leader Soga no Iname, who was the grandfather of three emperors. Previous digs at the site had done little to clarify the construction of the tomb, but Kansai University Archaeological Research Institute researchers were able to expose stone-lined steps that would have given the monument an unusual pyramid-like appearance. “Archaeologists and experts checked to see if there are any similarly structured tombs in Japan, but there is nothing like it," an Asuka municipal official told the Wall Street Journal. "The tomb is unique.” The archaeologists were also able to determine the tomb had a stone-lined moat.
CARDIFF, WALES—While excavating Roman and Iron Age deposits at a hillfort outside Cardiff, archaeologists were surprised to discover ditches that contained Neolithic-period tools and weapons dating to around 3600 B.C. "Quite frankly, we were amazed,” Cardiff archaeologist Dave Wyatt, the excavation co-director, told Culture 24. "No-one realized the site had been occupied as far back as the Neolithic—predating the construction of the Iron Age hillfort by several thousand years." The number of broken flint arrowheads the team unearthed suggests that the site was a battleground at some point during the Neolithic. But according to team archaeologist Oliver Davis, events at the site were typically more peaceful. “The location and number of Neolithic finds indicate that we have discovered a causewayed enclosure – a special place where small communities gathered together at certain important times of the year to celebrate, feast, exchange things and possibly find marriage partners,”
SITTINGBOURNE, ENGLAND—Archaeologists excavating an area slated for development in North Kent have uncovered a 6,000-year-old Neolithic henge, reports the Canterbury Times. Consisting of two circular ditches, with the outermost reaching about 100 feet in diameter and featuring an entrance that faces northeast, the site was likely a ceremonial gathering place similar to Stonehenge. SWAT Archaeology's Paul Wilkinson, who led the project, believes the outer ring was made in the Neolithic, and the inner ring was added later, in the Bronze Age, when the henge became a funeral monument. A second, smaller ring discovered nearby may have also been used as a cemetery during the Bronze Age. There are signs that the monuments might have later been repurposed as livestock pens.
GONIO, GEORGIA—Polish archaeologists have made a surprising find of an ancient bath complex at the Roman fort of Asparos during their first excavation season. According to PAP, the Polish team was greatly surprised by the quality of the building materials and techniques used, which were not typical for a soldiers’ bathhouse, as well as its decoration, including mosaic flooring, a luxury unusual for this type of bath. Equally surprising was the date of the complex, says excavation director Radosław Karasiewicz-Szczypiorski. The bath dates to the second half of the first century A.D., during the reign of the emperor Vespasian, at least a century or more earlier than other Roman structures found in this part of Georgia.
AMPHIPOLIS, GREECE—A massive tomb has been unearthed in northeastern Greece, just 65 away from Thessaloniki, reports the Guardian. Over the past two years, archaeologists have been slowly excavating the giant structure, which dates to the fourth century B.C. The tomb is encircled by a 1500-foot marble wall and approached by an almost 20-foot-wide road lined with fresco-covered walls. Archaeologists have also discovered the tomb’s entrance guarded by two large sphinxes. A 15-foot-tall sculpture of a lion that may once have been placed on top of the tomb was discovered more than a century ago near the site. The tomb’s opulence and enormous size surely mark it as having belonged to an important Macedonian official, says a minister from the Ministry of Culture, and may rank it as the largest tomb ever found in Greece. Within the next weeks, archaeologists hope to enter the tomb’s interior, perhaps enabling them to identify who was buried inside.
CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA—The Post and Courier reports that conservators have begun to scrape away the layer of sand and shell encasing the hull of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley, which went down in Charleston Harbor in 1864 just minutes after it sank the Union warship USS Housatonic. The layer, known as concretion, has obscured many of the specific features of the vessel that scientists are interested in studying, especially evidence of bullet holes or other damage that might reveal clues about why the submarine sank. "We have been waiting for this a long time," says Nestor Gonzalez, associate director Warren Lasch Conservation Center, which is responsible for the project. "We will know if there was any damage to the submarine pre-sinking or post-sinking." The painstaking work, carried out using dental chisels and small hammers to remove concretion that is in some places a couple of inches thick, could take up to a year to complete.
DENVER, COLORADO—Western Digs reports that Durham University archaeochemist Denise Regan has discovered traces of salicylic acid, a precursor compound of aspirin, on an unassuming, 1,300-year-old ceramic sherd unearthed in a rock shelter in eastern Colorado. The discovery could be the earliest proven use of the chemical in North America, and offers a unique glimpse at prehistoric medicinal practices. Derived from willow bark, salicylic acid is still used by some Native groups today to cure aches. “If you talk to the Arapahoe or the Cheyenne, they’ll use willow bark either as a tea with the leaves or they will soften the bark in boiling water and chew on it for toothaches and as a pain reliever,” says Regan. She believes the sherd itself could have come from a vessel that was reserved for preparing poultices or tea. "I think it’s reasonable to infer that this pot was used for medicinal purposes and not to cook food. If it was used to cook food we would’ve more than likely found something else in there.”
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT—Researchers have long argued about the role of climate change in the rise, development, and collapse of societies. According to NBC news, a newly released paper helps to clarify this relationship. A team of scientists led by Frank Hole of Yale University sampled both modern and ancient grains of barley from sites across the Near East and examined the effects of the large droughts that are known to have occurred in the region for the last ten millennia. Variations in the prevalence and health of the barley, which can be detected by the varying levels of carbon isotopes in the grains, are a key to understanding how, for example, the lack of water forced some farmers, especially those inland, to develop more sophisticated irrigation systems and even to turn to other crops, while those on the coast where water was more plentiful continued to cultivate barley for beer, bread, and other foodstuffs.
DANGEIL, SUDAN—A new book covering more than a decade of excavations by the Berber-Abidiya Archaeological Project shares the story of a stunning site and an extraordinary collection of exotic artifacts, reports Livescience. The site’s cemetery, which was first discovered in 2002, dates to about 2,000 years ago, a period when the Kushite Kingdom controlled a large amount of territory and exerted a great deal of power in the area. Although the Kushites often built pyramids to bury their dead, these graves are entirely underground and contain such impressive artifacts as a silver ring depicting the god Amun and a faience box decorated with prominent eyes—perhaps to protect against the evil eye—as well as several artifacts associated with archery buried with a man who had clearly been an archer in his life. The work of the project continues and the researchers hope to find the full extent of the cemetery in the future.
PULLMAN, WASHINGTON— A new study of human remains from southwest Colorado suggests that ancestral Peublo people living in the Mesa Verde area between 1140 and 1180 experienced a particularly violent era, reports Washington State University News. Archaeologist Tim Kohler and his colleagues found that almost nine out of ten sets of human remains dating to this period show evidence of skull and arm trauma from violent blows. “If we’re identifying that much trauma, many were dying a violent death,” says Kohler. However, human remains from the nearby northern Rio Grande area that date to the same time show much less evidence of trauma. According to Kohler, cultural differences between the two areas may explain the discrepancy in levels of violence. In the Rio Grande area, people did not rely on kin groups as much as in Mesa Verde, and joined larger groups such as medicine societies that spanned separate villages and promoted links between family groups. Kohler also sees more specialization of crafts in the Northern Rio Grande, which could be significant. "When you don’t have specialization in societies, there’s a sense in which everybody is a competitor because everybody is doing the same thing,” he notes. By the late thirteenth century, the Mesa Verde region was completely abandoned.
HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND—How do archaeologists decide when to call it a day? At the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum, modern Silchester, project director Mike Fulford of the University of Reading says it’s time to stop digging more than 100 years after Victorian archaeologists first began to explore the site, reports the Guardian. “Nothing left there except gravel and natural geology," says Fulford, "nothing of any interest whatsoever." But that has certainly not been the case over the four decades that Fulford has been digging at Silchester, one of the best-preserved and completely excavated towns in Roman Britain. In addition to impressive standing remains, the site has produced some of the most important and compelling ancient Roman artifacts in Britain including the island’s oldest olive pit, dog, raven and cat burials, a spectacular knife depicting two mating dogs, a soldier’s folding skillet, as well as important pre-Roman finds including what may the largest Iron Age hall ever found in Britain. Yet despite the extensive excavations, archaeologists have not yet been able to figure out why was this major town abandoned in the sixth century. With the last digging season over and 6,000 tons of excavated soil waiting to use as backfill, Fulford is content to let that question remain a mystery.
Hurriyet Daily News reports that archaeologists are preparing to restart excavations at the site of the Temple of Artemis at the ancient city of Ephesus. Once considered one of the seven wonders of the world, the massive temple was completeted in 550 B.C and constructed completely of marble. Little remains of the temple on the surface, and digs at the site are hampered by the area's high water table. A regional drought will actually help the effort, according to Sabine Ladstatter, director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute and excavation director at Ephesus. "This year we are lucky because the ground water withdrew," she says. "We normally do it with pumps. Now we will progress faster. We are planning to work until the rainy season." The last dig at the site took place twenty years ago and archaeologists still have a number of questions about the temple. "We will seek [the] answer to questions like was there a church in the area of the Temple of Artemis?" says Ladstatter, who hopes the team will reach the site's Roman levels.
LEICESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND—A tithe barn and shop buildings have been discovered at the site of a medieval manor house in central England’s village of Croxton Kerrial. “We have the house and when we stripped off the topsoil, we found a tithe barn measuring 85 feet long by 23 feet wide which we are in the process of excavating. We have also excavated an area of cobbled stones surrounded by buildings, which we believe would have been a dairy, a blacksmiths, and a bakery,” Tony Connolly, chair of the Framland Local Archaeology Group, told BBC News. The team also recovered a metal strap end for a belt engraved with a dragon, and the pieces of a twelfth-century jug from a well containing “beautifully clear water.”