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Bacteria’s Genome Reflects Human History

January 20, 2015

PARIS, FRANCE—Nature News reports that a new genetic analysis of the Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, suggests that it emerged some 6,600 years ago in northeastern China. This coincides with the archaeological evidence of the beginning of rice farming in China’s upper Yangtze River Valley. As in other parts of the world, it is thought the M. tuberculosis bacteria took hold in human populations when people settled down to farm. The research team, led by evolutionary geneticist Thierry Wirth at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, thinks that the bacteria probably spread along the Silk Road, which connected China to the Middle East, and eventually reached the Pacific Islands and Central Asia in the nineteenth century with waves of Chinese immigration. Numbers of the bacteria spiked during the Industrial Revolution and urbanization after World War I, when people lived in increasingly close quarters. The numbers of bacteria fell as antibiotics became widely available, but then rebounded with the rise of HIV/AIDS and the collapse of the Soviet health system. To read about the spread of tuberculosis to the New World, see "Across the Atlantic by Flipper."

Categories: Blog

Bacteria’s Genome Reflects Human History

January 20, 2015

PARIS, FRANCE—Nature News reports that a new genetic analysis of the Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, suggests that it emerged some 6,600 years ago in northeastern China. This coincides with the archaeological evidence of the beginning of rice farming in China’s upper Yangtze River Valley. As in other parts of the world, it is thought the M. tuberculosis bacteria took hold in human populations when people settled down to farm. The research team, led by evolutionary geneticist Thierry Wirth at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, thinks that the bacteria probably spread along the Silk Road, which connected China to the Middle East, and eventually reached the Pacific Islands and Central Asia in the nineteenth with waves of Chinese immigration. Numbers of the bacteria spiked during the Industrial Revolution and urbanization after World War I, when people lived in increasingly close quarters. The numbers of bacteria fell as antibiotics became widely available, but then rebounded with the rise of HIV/AIDS and the collapse of the Soviet health system. 

Categories: Blog

Evidence of Carnivore Consumption Found at Atapuerca

January 20, 2015

TARRAGONA, SPAIN—Human tooth marks and cut marks have been found on the bones of small carnivores in El Mirador Cave at Atapuerca. The cave had been used to shelter flocks of sheep and cattle, but humans also sporadically consumed domestic dog, wild cat, fox, and badger, between 7,200 and 3,100 years ago. “In El Mirador Cave, the dogs were disarticulated, defleshed, and boiled. In this site this has been observed both in the Neolithic as in the Bronze Age levels. It occurs occasionally in various episodes, but has temporal continuity,” said Patricia Martin of the Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution. She notes that the wild animals may have been accidentally captured and consumed, and that the dogs may have been eaten at a time of food shortage, or even may have been butchered for their skins. To read more about discoveries at Atapuerca, see "First European."

Categories: Blog

Evidence of Carnivore Consumption Found at Atapuerca

January 20, 2015

TARRAGONA, SPAIN—Human tooth marks and cut marks have been found on the bones of small carnivores in El Mirador Cave at Atapuerca. The cave had been used to shelter flocks of sheep and cattle, but humans also sporadically consumed domestic dog, wild cat, fox, and badger, between 7,200 and 3,100 years ago. “In El Mirador Cave, the dogs were disarticulated, defleshed, and boiled. In this site this has been observed both in the Neolithic as in the Bronze Age levels. It occurs occasionally in various episodes, but has temporal continuity,” said Patricia Martin of the Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution. She notes that the wild animals may have been accidentally captured and consumed, and that the dogs may have been eaten at a time of food shortage, or even may have been butchered for their skins. 

Categories: Blog

High-Tech Imaging Detects Letters in Carbonized Scroll

January 20, 2015

NAPLES, ITALY—Vito Mocella of the Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems used x-ray phase-contrast tomography to look inside carbonized scrolls from the library at the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. The library and its estimated 700 scrolls were burned and buried by the eruption of Vesuvius, and since its discovery in 1752, scientists and classicists have been attempting to unroll the papyri and read them. Mocella’s team was able to use the medical imaging technology, which is usually used to examine soft human tissues, to detect the tiny bump of ink on the surface of a scroll without damaging the fragile artifact. “It is a revolution for papyrologists,” he said of the study, published in Nature Communications. Daniel Delattre of the Institute for the Research and History of Texts in Paris examined the handwriting of the few letters and words that the team was able to recover. He thinks the scroll was written by a scribe known to have been working in the first century B.C., and that the text is likely a copy of a work by the Epicurian philosopher and poet Philodemus. Additional software could help speed up the process of reading the collection of scrolls, and trigger the continued excavation of the Villa of the Papyri. “One of the arguments against proceeding with the excavation of the villa is that we would be unable to read any scrolls that might be discovered, and until then it would be better to leave them underground. Now we are on the edge of possessing that technology, and, since an excavation will take some time to arrange, we might as well get started,” classicist Robert Fowler of the University of Bristol commented to Nature News. To read more about ancient papyri, see "Papyrus Fragment Bears Early Christian Prayers."

Categories: Blog

High-Tech Imaging Detects Letters in Carbonized Scroll

January 20, 2015

NAPLES, ITALY—Vito Mocella of the Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems used x-ray phase-contrast tomography to look inside carbonized scrolls from the library at the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. The library and its estimated 700 scrolls were burned and buried by the eruption of Vesuvius, and since its discovery in 1752, scientists and classicists have been attempting to unroll the papyri and read them. Mocella’s team was able to use the medical imaging technology, which is usually used to examine soft human tissues, to detect the tiny bump of ink on the surface of a scroll without damaging the fragile artifact. “It is a revolution for papyrologists,” he said of the study, published in Nature Communications. Daniel Delattre of the Institute for the Research and History of Texts in Paris examined the handwriting of the few letters and words that the team was able to recover. He thinks the scroll was written by a scribe known to have been working in the first century B.C., and that the text is likely a copy of a work by the Epicurian philosopher and poet Philodemus. Additional software could help speed up the process of reading the collection of scrolls, and trigger the continued excavation of the Villa of the Papyri. “One of the arguments against proceeding with the excavation of the villa is that we would be unable to read any scrolls that might be discovered, and until then it would be better to leave them underground. Now we are on the edge of possessing that technology, and, since an excavation will take some time to arrange, we might as well get started,” classicist Robert Fowler of the University of Bristol commented to Nature News

Categories: Blog

Amphipolis Tomb Held Five Individuals

January 20, 2015

AMPHIPOLIS, GREECE—The bones of at least five people had been buried in the tomb at Amphipolis, according to an announcement made by the Greek Ministry of Culture and reported in The Telegraph. Archaeologists identified the bones of a woman over the age of 60, a newborn baby, two men aged between 35 and 45, and the cremated remains of an adult of indeterminate age. The bones of one of the men bore signs of injury from a sword or a dagger. It has been suggested that the opulent tomb, which dates to between 325 B.C. and 300 B.C., may have belonged to Alexander the Great’s mother, who was murdered, along with his widow, son, and half-brother. The bones will be tested to try to determine if the woman and the two men were related. “Part of the analysis will look into a possible blood relationship… but the lack of teeth and cranial parts that are used in ancient DNA analysis may not allow for a successful identification,” the Ministry of Culture revealed. For more on the tomb, see "Top 10 Discoveries of 2014: Amphipolis."

Categories: Blog

Amphipolis Tomb Held Five Individuals

January 20, 2015

AMPHIPOLIS, GREECE—The bones of at least five people had been buried in the tomb at Amphipolis, according to an announcement made by the Greek Ministry of Culture and reported in The Telegraph. Archaeologists identified the bones of a woman over the age of 60, a newborn baby, two men aged between 35 and 45, and the cremated remains of an adult of indeterminate age. The bones of one of the men bore signs of injury from a sword or a dagger. It has been suggested that the opulent tomb, which dates to between 325 B.C. and 300 B.C., may have belonged to Alexander the Great’s mother, who was murdered, along with his widow, son, and half-brother. The bones will be tested to try to determine if the woman and the two men were related. “Part of the analysis will look into a possible blood relationship… but the lack of teeth and cranial parts that are used in ancient DNA analysis may not allow for a successful identification,” the Ministry of Culture revealed. 

Categories: Blog

Exeter Cathedral Could Uncover Its Roman Baths

January 16, 2015

EXETER, ENGLAND—Exeter Cathedral has submitted a bid to England’s Heritage Lottery Fund to unearth a first-century Roman bath discovered under the cathedral green in 1971. Archaeologist Paul Bidwell told BBC News that the Exeter Baths were “one of the first two monumental masonry buildings built in Britain.” The site includes a large caldarium, or hot room; a tepidarium, or warm room; a furnace house; an exercise yard; and multiple service rooms. “The baths were of a continental design which shows a close connection between Exeter and the civilized culture of the wider Roman Empire. It is of international interest,” added Martin Pitts of the University of Exeter. The Anglo-Saxon minster was then built on the site, followed by Exeter Cathedral in 1050. The ruins would be showcased in an underground interpretation center, along with other historic items from the cathedral. For more on the culture of Roman Britain, see "Artifact: Eagle Sculpture."

Categories: Blog

Exeter Cathedral Could Uncover Its Roman Baths

January 16, 2015

EXETER, ENGLAND—Exeter Cathedral has submitted a bid to England’s Heritage Lottery Fund to unearth a first-century Roman bath discovered under the cathedral green in 1971. Archaeologist Paul Bidwell told BBC News that the Exeter Baths were “one of the first two monumental masonry buildings built in Britain.” The site includes a large caldarium, or hot room; a tepidarium, or warm room; a furnace house; an exercise yard; and multiple service rooms. “The baths were of a continental design which shows a close connection between Exeter and the civilized culture of the wider Roman Empire. It is of international interest,” added Martin Pitts of the University of Exeter. The Anglo-Saxon minster was then built on the site, followed by Exeter Cathedral in 1050. The ruins would be showcased in an underground interpretation center, along with other historic items from the cathedral. For more on the culture of Roman Britain, see "Artifact: Eagle Sculpture."

Categories: Blog

Seventh-Century Moat Uncovered in Japan

January 16, 2015

ASUKA, JAPAN—Excavation work at a school at the Koyamada ruins in Nara Prefecture has uncovered the remnants of what may have been a moat at the first burial site of Emperor Jomei (593-641), according to a report in The Asahi Shimbun. The moat had been lined with quartz diorite boulders on one of its sloping sides, flatter stones on its bottom surface, and special chlorite schist flagstones topped with flagstones known as “Haibara,” made of rhyolite, stacked in a staircase pattern on the other slope. The researchers estimate that the moat’s burial mound was square shaped, with each side measuring between 50 and 90 yards long. Jomei’s final gravesite, the Dannozuka burial mound in Sakurai, Nara Prefecture, was constructed in the same design with the same materials. To read about a Roman artifact discovered in Japan see "Imported Glass in Japanese Tomb Identified."

Categories: Blog

Seventh-Century Moat Uncovered in Japan

January 16, 2015

ASUKA, JAPAN—Excavation work at a school at the Koyamada ruins in Nara Prefecture has uncovered the remnants of what may have been a moat at the first burial site of Emperor Jomei (593-641), according to a report in The Asahi Shimbun. The moat had been lined with quartz diorite boulders on one of its sloping sides, flatter stones on its bottom surface, and special chlorite schist flagstones topped with flagstones known as “Haibara,” made of rhyolite, stacked in a staircase pattern on the other slope. The researchers estimate that the moat’s burial mound was square shaped, with each side measuring between 50 and 90 yards long. Jomei’s final gravesite, the Dannozuka burial mound in Sakurai, Nara Prefecture, was constructed in the same design with the same materials. 

Categories: Blog

Ireland’s Dairies Date Back 6,000 Years

January 16, 2015

BRISTOL, ENGLAND—Ninety percent of the fats found in Neolithic cooking pots from Ireland came from dairy products, according to a new study conducted at the University of Bristol. “We know from previous research that dairying was an important part of many early farming economies, but what was a big surprise was the prevalence of dairy residues in Irish pots. It looks to have been a very important food source,” said Jessica Smyth of the School of Chemistry. The remaining ten percent of the residues came from beef or mutton fat, or a mixture of milk and meat. “People can obviously cook meat in other ways than boiling it in pots, and there is plenty of evidence for cereal processing at this time, but the Irish dairy signal remains very striking, particularly when you compare it with the continental European data sets. Ireland really does seem to go mad for milk in the Neolithic,” she said. Early Irish farmers were likely to have had one or two imported animals to support their individual households. Those animals may have been cared for as part of a larger community herd. To read about another method of studying prehistoric dairy consumption, see "Dental Calculus Offers Evidence of Milk-Drinking."

Categories: Blog

Ireland’s Dairies Date Back 6,000 Years

January 16, 2015

BRISTOL, ENGLAND—Ninety percent of the fats found in Neolithic cooking pots from Ireland came from dairy products, according to a new study conducted at the University of Bristol. “We know from previous research that dairying was an important part of many early farming economies, but what was a big surprise was the prevalence of dairy residues in Irish pots. It looks to have been a very important food source,” said Jessica Smyth of the School of Chemistry. The remaining ten percent of the residues came from beef or mutton fat, or a mixture of milk and meat. “People can obviously cook meat in other ways than boiling it in pots, and there is plenty of evidence for cereal processing at this time, but the Irish dairy signal remains very striking, particularly when you compare it with the continental European data sets. Ireland really does seem to go mad for milk in the Neolithic,” she said. Early Irish farmers were likely to have had one or two imported animals to support their individual households. Those animals may have been cared for as part of a larger community herd. 

Categories: Blog

Burial Mound in Kazakhstan Yields Gold Artifacts

January 15, 2015

ALMATY, KAZAKHSTAN—The Kok Kainar burial mound has yielded three artifacts, according to a report in Tengrinews. The first is described as a figurine of a feline predator dating to the fourth century B.C. “It is made of two pressed embossed plates connected into a single sculptural figurine. It can be referred to as a ‘playing kitten’ for its pose,” reads a report by Almaty’s City Department of Culture. The second item is a golden plate decorated with strawberries that depicts “a bird of prey, its head turned to the left, with a large beak, and wings unfolded.” The third artifact is a bronze mirror with a handle dating to sometime between the second century B.C. and the second century A.D. To read about a similar find, see "Thracian Treasure Chest."

Categories: Blog

Burial Mound in Kazakhstan Yields Gold Artifacts

January 15, 2015

ALMATY, KAZAKHSTAN—The Kok Kainar burial mound has yielded three artifacts, according to a report in Tengrinews. The first is described as a figurine of a feline predator dating to the fourth century B.C. “It is made of two pressed embossed plates connected into a single sculptural figurine. It can be referred to as a ‘playing kitten’ for its pose,” reads a report by Almaty’s City Department of Culture. The second item is a golden plate decorated with strawberries that depicts “a bird of prey, its head turned to the left, with a large beak, and wings unfolded.” The third artifact is a bronze mirror with a handle dating to sometime between the second century B.C. and the second century A.D. To read about a similar find, see "Thracian Treasure Chest."

Categories: Blog

Woman’s Death Attributed to 19th-Century Polar Bear Attack

January 15, 2015

GATINEAU, CANADA—Researchers have analyzed the skull of an Inuit woman whose remains were excavated in the 1950s and housed in the collections of the Canadian Museum of History. The woman’s remains, thought to date to the nineteenth century, were found partially exposed inside a tent ring on the outskirts of an isolated Sadlermiut settlement on Southhampton Island. She was probably brought to the tent after she was injured, and then covered with organic material, possibly a skin, after her death. It had been thought that the woman was killed by a gunshot wound because of the holes on either side of her cranium, but museum archaeologist Karen Ryan and her colleagues thought it more likely that the woman had been attacked by an animal. They created a 3-D image of the skull, and sent it to the Virtual Zooarchaeology of the Arctic Project at Idaho State University, where the technicians compared the wounds to the bites of different Arctic animals without actually handling the woman’s remains. An adult female polar bear made a good match. “What struck me was how it makes you think about how the attack played out. Something horrible happened to that woman. It’s personal,” Ryan told Nunatsiaq Online. The museum’s collection of Nunavut human remains are being studied before they are repatriated. To read more about the Sadlermiut, see "Artifact: A Shaman's Healing Object."

Categories: Blog

Woman’s Death Attributed to 19th-Century Polar Bear Attack

January 15, 2015

GATINEAU, CANADA—Researchers have analyzed the skull of an Inuit woman whose remains were excavated in the 1950s and housed in the collections of the Canadian Museum of History. The woman’s remains, thought to date to the nineteenth century, were found partially exposed inside a tent ring on the outskirts of an isolated Sadlermiut settlement on Southhampton Island. She was probably brought to the tent after she was injured, and then covered with organic material, possibly a skin, after her death. It had been thought that the woman was killed by a gunshot wound because of the holes on either side of her cranium, but museum archaeologist Karen Ryan and her colleagues thought it more likely that the woman had been attacked by an animal. They created a 3-D image of the skull, and sent it to the Virtual Zooarchaeology of the Arctic Project at Idaho State University, where the technicians compared the wounds to the bites of different Arctic animals without actually handling the woman’s remains. An adult female polar bear made a good match. “What struck me was how it makes you think about how the attack played out. Something horrible happened to that woman. It’s personal,” Ryan told Nunatsiaq Online. The museum’s collection of Nunavut human remains are being studied before they are repatriated. To read more about the Sadlermiut, see "Artifact: A Shaman's Healing Object."

Categories: Blog

Forgotten Rifle Discovered in Great Basin National Park

January 15, 2015

BAKER, NEVADA—Last fall, the staff at Great Basin National Park found a 132-year-old Winchester rifle, “the gun that won the West,” leaning against a juniper tree in the backcountry. Nichole Andler, chief of interpretation at Great Basin, says that the rifle appears to have been exposed to sun, wind, snow, and rain for many years. Its wood stock has turned grey and has cracked, and the barrel is rusted. A Model 1873 repeating rifle, it bears a serial number that records its manufacture and shipping date in 1882, but the records do not indicate who purchased the rifle, which sold for an affordable $25 at the time. The cultural resource staff at Great Basin National Park is continuing to look for information in period newspapers and family histories for more information on the rifle. Conservators will treat the gun before it is put on display. To read more in-depth about archaeology and the American West, see "A New Look at the Donner Party."

Categories: Blog

Forgotten Rifle Discovered in Great Basin National Park

January 15, 2015

BAKER, NEVADA—Last fall, the staff at Great Basin National Park found a 132-year-old Winchester rifle, “the gun that won the West,” leaning against a juniper tree in the backcountry. Nichole Andler, chief of interpretation at Great Basin, says that the rifle appears to have been exposed to sun, wind, snow, and rain for many years. Its wood stock has turned grey and has cracked, and the barrel is rusted. A Model 1873 repeating rifle, it bears a serial number that records its manufacture and shipping date in 1882, but the records do not indicate who purchased the rifle, which sold for an affordable $25 at the time. The cultural resource staff at Great Basin National Park is continuing to look for information in period newspapers and family histories for more information on the rifle. Conservators will treat the gun before it is put on display. 

Categories: Blog

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