DONOSTIA, SPAIN—The study of flint remains from the Ametzagaina site has revealed the economic territory of the people who made temporary camps there over a period of about 2,000 years some 25,000 years ago. Most open-air sites do not survive, but Ametzagaina was protected by earthworks dug in the nineteenth century during the Carlist Wars. The people who camped at Ametzagaina collected flint from the same territory where they hunted, gathered, and fished. “Flint was their steel, but it was not abundant, they had to know the locations where there were seams, they made their way there, they rough-hewed it on the spot and returned to their camps just with whatever they could make use of,” Álvaro Arrizabalaga of the University of the Basque Country told Phys.org.
NORFOLK, ENGLAND—A volunteer project to record medieval graffiti in Norfolk is spreading across England. More than 28,000 images, perhaps doodled by churchgoers, have been recorded in Norfolk, and only one-third of Norwich Cathedral has been searched so far. “[Medieval graffiti] was believed to be rare—turns out it’s not,” Matt Champion, a medieval archaeologist who started the program in 2010, told BBC News. Images of compass designs, windmills, sundials, circles, and ships have been documented. “Are they thanksgiving for a voyage safely undertaken, or a prayer for safe passage on a journey yet to come? Some of these ship images appear to show deliberate damage, begging the question whether they are prayers for long overdue ships,” he explained.
NORTHAMPTON, ENGLAND—The excavation of the site of Northamptonshire’s new county council headquarters has uncovered scraps of medieval linen and a piece of serpentine marble that may have been part of a portable altar. The pieces of linen were found in the base of a large, timber and stone-lined tank that was probably part of a tanning complex. “Some very nice pieces of antler, a lovely collection of honestones for sharpening knives, two scraps of medieval linen, and a good preservation of industrial features have been uncovered,” Jim Brown of the Museum of London Archaeology told BBC News. A medieval bread oven, an early thirteenth-century well shaft, and trading tokens were also recovered.
ROME, ITALY—Current excavations at Ostia, Rome’s ancient port city at the estuary of the Tiber River, have uncovered a 2,700-year-old cemetery containing a variety of styles among its dozen tombs. Lead curse tablets warding off potential looters were also found. “What is original is that there are different types of funeral rites: burials and cremations,” Paola Germoni, director of Ostia, told Art Daily. The cemetery was found on the edge of the main excavated area of the town.
KUTZTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA—Science News reports that human footprints found in a Romanian cave in the 1960s and initially dated to 15,000 years ago are actually 35,000 years old, making them some of the oldest such prints in Europe. Radiocarbon dating of cave bear bones found just below the prints allowed a team of anthropologists, led by Kutztown University’s David Webb, to re-date the tracks, which were left by six or seven people, including one child. Some 400 footprints were initially discovered, but over the years explorers and tourists have damaged the site, and only 51 now remain. Three-dimensional mapping of the prints has allowed the researchers to reconstruct human movement throughout the cave.
CORTEZ, COLORADO—Archaeologists are excavating a 1,500-year-old village near Mesa Verde that appears to be the first settlement in the Four Corners region to have been occupied year-round by farmers. “This is the first population to move into the central Mesa Verde region and farm and be sedentary full time,” Susan Ryan, Director of Archaeology at the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, told Western Digs. The site features ten pithouses built in a diversity of architectural styles organized around an underground ceremonial chamber, known as a great kiva. Dating to A.D. 570, the kiva is the earliest to be found in the region. “We think we’re at the very first site that has a village forming around public architecture in the central Mesa Verde region, and that’s unique,” said Ryan. Prior to the establishment of the village, which is known as the Dillard site, the area was populated by people who were still highly mobile and alternated between foraging and farming. The kiva would have helped socially integrate people of diverse backgrounds who were transitioning into a new, fully agricultural way of life. The Dillard site heralded a revolutionary change in Southwestern prehistory, but within a hundred years of being built, its great kiva was ritually burned and abandoned.
STOKKE, NORWAY—Excavators on the site of a planned large conference center southwest of Oslo have uncovered the skull of a child aged between infancy and ten that they believe may be as much as 8,000 years old and may contain the oldest remains of a human brain, the Daily Mail Online reports. It is extremely rare to find organic material, such as human tissue, preserved for so many millennia. Archaeologists have thus far only removed the skull and surrounding soil, and examined only the parts of the skull that are exposed, so as not to damage it. The site appears to be a burial, as the bones of an adult, probably a man, were also found at the site, and will provide new information about the Mesolithic period in Norway, about which relatively little is known.
BETHSAIDA, ISRAEL—An archaeological team working at the site of Bethsaida on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee has uncovered a rare example of a coin minted under the Roman emperor Domitian celebrating the Romans’ conquest of Judea in A.D. 70, according to a University of Nebraska at Omaha press release. While the “Judea Capta” (“Conquered Judea”) coin series lasted for 25 years, this version is very unusual—only 48 similar coins have been found—and has confirmed the date of large Roman building the team has been excavating for the past several seasons. Bethsaida was the site of an important biblical city (possibly identified with the city of Geshur in the Hebrew Bible) not only as the birthplace of the apostles Peter, Philip, and Andrew, but also the location of some of Jesus’ important miracles, including the healing of a blind man and a paralytic.
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA—Construction work on Interstate 95 in the Kensington-Fishtown and Port Richmond neighborhoods led to the discovery of artifacts spanning 5,000 years of Philadelphia’s history. “The people in these areas are not often recorded in historic documents,” archaeologist Douglas Mooney told NBC Philadelphia. Prehistoric tools, points, pots, and pipes were found along the Delaware River, along with houses and artifacts from European colonists. This area is also known for shipbuilding, fishing, and glassware industries along the river. Excavators recovered snapping turtle skulls, glass objects, and fishing supplies. “Center City has been the focus of history. The peripheral parts have not been given equal treatment until now,” Mooney added.
RECHNITZ, AUSTRIA—Aerial photographs have led archaeologists in eastern Austria to concentric circular trenches dating to the Neolithic period. The trenches were surrounded by wooden poles, and defensive walls with multiple entrances were found inside the approximately 12-foot-deep trenches. “Such circular trenches are always positioned on a gentle slope, in order to give a clear view of the sky for the observation of the heavenly bodies,” archaeologist Franz Sauer told The Local. The circular earthworks may have been used as a calendar and a ritual space.
EASTON, MARYLAND—Mark Leone of the University of Maryland, College Park, is leading a team of students in the excavation of The Hill neighborhood in Easton. They are looking for evidence that could prove it was the country’s first free African-American community, and not the Treme neighborhood in New Orleans, which dates to 1812. The team is currently excavating a building where three free non-white residents lived, according to the 1800 census. “We also know that by around 1790 there were a few free African Americans who were actually purchasing property in this neighborhood. And so we’re excavating here, one, to figure out what their lives were like and also to better understand the community more broadly in order to help support the claim that this is the oldest free African-American community in the United States,” Stefan Woehlke told Delmarva Now. Those first 400 residents may have been freed by Methodists and Quakers who lived in the area in the eighteenth century.
YORK, ENGLAND—Samples of dental calculus obtained from 7,000-year-old skeletons at Al Khiday, a prehistoric site on the White Nile in Central Sudan, have been analyzed by an international team of scientists. Chemical compounds and microfossils in the calcified dental plaque suggest that purple nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus) was an important part of the diet. It is a good source of carbohydrates and it inhibits the growth of Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium that contributes to tooth decay. The researchers did observe a low level of dental cavities in the population. “We also discovered that these people ate several other plants and we found traces of smoke, evidence for cooking, and for chewing plant fibers to prepare raw materials. These small biographical details add to the growing evidence that prehistoric people had a detailed understanding of plants long before the development of agriculture,” Karen Hardy of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona told Science Daily. The people of Al Khiday continued to eat the beneficial purple nut sedge after agricultural plants had been introduced to their diets.
DEVON, ENGLAND—Archaeologists and students from the University of Exeter are excavating a Romano-British settlement in Ipplepen. They have unearthed a rutted road with repairs to its surface; Roman coins; fine, imported Roman pottery and local pottery made in the Roman style; and a Roman hair pin, brooch, and bracelet. “Roman women had some very elaborate hairstyles which changed through time like our fashions do today. Hairpins were used to hold complex hairstyles like buns and plaits together and suggests that Devon women may have been adopting fashions from Rome,” Danielle Wootton of the Portable Antiquities Scheme told the Exeter Express and Echo. The team also found green and blue glass beads, and two amber beads that were probably imported from the Baltic coast. “During the Roman period amber was thought to have magical, protective and healing properties. These very personal items worn by the women that lived on this site centuries ago have enabled us to get a glimpse into the lives of people living everyday lives on the edges of the Roman Empire,” she added.
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, ENGLAND—Traces of a medieval church thought to have been destroyed during the Reformation were discovered at Rufford Country Park during an excavation at Rufford Abbey. “Uncovering the remains of the original church is momentous,” Emily Gillott, Nottinghamshire County Council’s community archaeologist, told BBC News. A piece of Tudor pottery and two teeth, thought to belong to a monk who had been buried there, have been found at the site of the church, which was constructed in 1160.
MOSCOW, RUSSIA—A painting has been discovered on the walls of the tomb of Perseneb, a priest and steward who had been buried to the east of the Great Pyramid of Giza during the fifth dynasty, sometime between 2450 and 2350 B.C. “Known since the nineteenth century, the [tomb] could hardly present any new principal features. Therefore, it was a real surprise to discover an Old Kingdom painting on the eastern wall of the central room,” Maksim Lebedev of the Russian State University for the Humanities told Live Science. The painting had been covered with soot and dirt, and much of it has been damaged. Yet “none of the scenes has been lost completely. The remaining traces allow [for the] reconstruction [of] the whole composition,” he said. The images reflect the deceased’s high status, and depict boats sailing on the Nile River, agricultural scenes, and a man hunting marsh birds. There’s also an image thought to represent Perseneb with his wife and his dog.
COVENTRY, ENGLAND—Microbial genomist Mark Pallen of Warwick Medical School and his colleagues used “shotgun metagenomics” to sample all of the DNA present in the bony nodules on a 700-year-old skeleton unearthed in Sardinia. They thought that the man had suffered from tuberculosis, but the results showed the DNA signature of Brucella melitensis, a microbe caught from working with livestock or consuming contaminated milk or cheese. The disease, known as brucellosis, causes chronic fatigue and recurring fevers, and has been diagnosed in other ancient skeletons, including a possible case in the human ancestor Australopithecus africanus. Pallen’s team is now using “shotgun metagenomics” to test other historic tissue samples. “We’re cranking through all of these samples, and we’re hopeful that we’re going to find new things,” he told Live Science.
CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA—According to Phys.org, Geoffrey Clark of Australian National University and his colleagues think that Tonga served as a trade hub and the seat of a maritime empire for people across Polynesia in the first half of the second century A.D. The team analyzed more than 500 stone artifacts found in Tongan political centers, and traced the types of rocks to different Central Pacific islands. They found that two-thirds of the stone tools had been imported from Fiji, Samoa, and Tahiti, some 2,500 miles away from Tonga. Yet very few stone tools in Samoa were imports. Valuable goods and ideas could have been shared by people throughout Polynesia in areas formed by Tongan rulers’ centralizing authority.
TUCSON, ARIZONA—Clovis projectile points and cutting tools have been found mingled with the bones of two juvenile gomphotheres, elephant-like relatives of mastadons and mammoths, in northwestern Mexico. Gomphotheres are known to have been hunted in Central and South America, but this is the first time such evidence has been found in North America. “At first, just based on the size of the bone, we thought maybe it was a bison, because extinct bison were a little bigger than our modern bison. We finally found the mandible, and that’s what told the tale,” Vance Holliday of the University of Arizona told Science Daily. The bones have been dated to 13,400 years ago, making them the last known gomphotheres in North America.
BOLZANO, ITALY—A bone sample taken from the natural mummy known as Ötzi, found in a melting glacier on the Austrian-Italian border by hikers 1991, was used to decode his genome. Now a team of experts from the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC) and the University of Vienna analyzed the non-human DNA in the sample and identified traces of Treponema denticola, a pathogen involved in the development of periodontal disease. And, in fact, the Iceman was diagnosed with periodontitis with a computer tomography scan last year. “What is new is that we did not carry out a directed DNA analysis but rather investigated the whole spectrum of DNA to better understand which organisms are in this sample,” Frank Maixner of the EURAC Institute for Mummies and the Iceman told Science Daily. The team of scientists also detected Clostridia-like bacteria in the bone sample that are thought to be in a dormant state. If they were to grow, they could cause the 5,300-year-old mummy’s tissues to degrade. Continued preservation of the Iceman will require additional micro-biological monitoring.
LONDON, ENGLAND—New technology has detected dozens of additional wounds on skeletons excavated from a 13,000-year-old cemetery on the east bank of the Nile River in northern Sudan. The bones were unearthed in the 1960s by American archaeologist Fred Wendorf, when arrow heads were found and their impact marks were noted. The bones were eventually moved to the British Museum, and they have also been studied by scientists from Liverpool John Moores University, the University of Alaska, and Tulane University. “The skeletal material is of great importance—not only because of the evidence for conflict, but because the Jebel Sahaba cemetery is the oldest discovered in the Nile Valley so far,” Daniel Antoine, a curator in the British Museum’s Ancient Egypt and Sudan Department, told The Independent. The new research indicates that the men, women, and children had been killed by enemy archers over time, during the drought of the Younger Dryas period. Human ethnic groups would have been drawn to the waters of the Nile, where they would have inevitably clashed. The victims are said to be from the world’s oldest-known large-scale armed human conflict. Further study will investigate the health of the victims at the time of death.